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KJASEM The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine

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KORENG
  • Editorial2024-06-30

    편집자 주: 34권 2호

    Abstract : The first study analyzes the aeromedical consultation outcomes for Korean military flight crews diagnosed with malignant tumors. It highlights the increasing incidence of cancers such as thyroid and lung cancer, underscoring the need for regular health check-ups and thorough aeromedical evaluations. The second paper addresses the significant fatigue experienced by air operations control officers due to shift work. It suggests restructuring shift schedules to ensure adequate rest and maintain performance. The third study explores the effects of low-dose radiation on cognitive functions, suggesting potential benefits such as improved cell repair mechanisms, though it also calls for cautious application due to ongoing debates. The fourth paper examines the operational environment for urban air mobility, emphasizing the need for robust air traffic management systems and addressing vertical take-off and landing challenges. Lastly, the fifth study compares Korea’s aircraft maintenance personnel qualification system with international standards, recommending the adoption of competency-based training to enhance educational quality. Together, these studies contribute valuable insights and potential solutions for advancing aerospace and environmental medicine.

  • Original Article2024-06-30

    한국군 공중근무자의 악성 종양 관련 비행적성자문 결과 분석

    Abstract : Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency and management protocols for malignant tumors among cases referred for aeromedical consultation. Methods: The research analyzed data collected from aeromedical consultations conducted between January 2014 and December 2022. Parameters examined included demographic information such as sex, age, flight crew classification, and diagnosis. Results: Out of the cases reviewed, 31 patients were diagnosed with malignant tumors, with an average age at diagnosis of 38.5 years, and a male predominance of 26 cases. The most commonly diagnosed malignancies were thyroid cancer, lung cancer, kidney cancer, stomach cancer, and colon cancer. During the initial aeromedical consultation, 22 cases were temporarily grounded while 8 received waivers. Conclusion: Given the potential rise in malignant tumor incidence among flight crews due to advancements in medical technology facilitating early detection, it is imperative to emphasize regular check-ups and carefully evaluate aeromedical suitability for flying.

  • Original Article2024-06-30

    항공작전통제요원의 교대근무 피로에 관한 조사 연구

    Abstract : Purpose: Shift work can have physical and mental effects by destroying the physiological rhythm cycle by working at a times that does not match the worker’s physical and daily life rhythm. Due to the nature of its mission, the Korean Air Force performs 24-hour shift work in various fields, and this study attempted to analyze the sleep quality and mental workload of air defense operation control personnel who require shift work. Methods: Three surveys were conducted to analyze fatigue and job difficulty, etc. A general questionnaire asking about mission-related experience and demographic characteristics, the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K), which measures sleep quality, and NASA-TLX (National Aeronautics of Space Administration-task load index), a subjective job difficulty assessment method. Results: Overall, there was no significant difference in the ‘total sleep index’ and ‘job difficulty’ as a result of comparing and analyzing the 5-team 4 shift method and other shift methods, but the ‘total sleep index’ score was analyzed twice as high as the reference score in both comparison groups. Conclusion: In order to prevent shift workers’ sleep-related fatigue and human errors that may arise from this, there is room for improvement in shift work, and as can be seen from the analysis results, it is necessary to manage the schedule by focusing on shift types rather than shift methods.

  • Review Article2024-06-30

    인지기능에 대한 저선량 방사선의 영향

    Abstract : The relation between the low-dose radiation and the cognitive decline remains limited and controversial. However, the increasing use of high-dose radiation for medical purposes and some historical radiation-related accidents indicated that the low-dose radiation reduced cognitive ability, suggesting the reconsideration of the central nervous system’s low sensitivity to radiation, which has been advocated by conventional radiation biology. Although the continuous stimulation of low-dose radiation is known to be an environmental stressor that causes a critical decline in cognition during space exploration, the overall mechanisms from radiation exposure to cognitive alteration is still lacking. One of its main reasons is the inconsistent empirical results, and there are various possibilities to cause the contradictory consequences, such as the hormesis effect of low-dose radiation, the cellular adaptive responses, the radiation resistance, the bystander effects, and the genomic instability. In this review, we survey the low-dose radiation-induced cognitive studies, targeting learning achievement, emotional changes as well as fundamental cognitive behaviors in both humans and animals. Also, some relevant molecular studies are reappraised to understand the low-dose radiation-induced effects on the cognitive function.

  • Review Article2024-06-30

    도심항공교통 상용화를 위한 운항환경 고찰

    Abstract : Countries around the world are spending a lot of social costs due to various social problems such as traffic congestion, housing, and living environments caused by urbanization. It is judged that it is urban air mobility (UAM) that can solve these problems, so each country and local government are actively participating in the UAM industry to solve these problems. And it is promoting it to the public with a blueprint as the best alternative that can dramatically solve the congested traffic environment in the city center. However, I don’t think it explains in detail the many limited operating environments and risks to be overcome in order to commercialize UAM. Therefore, I would like to consider the low-altitude airspace operating environment and vertical take-off landing aerodynamic limitations required for stable commercialization of UAM aircraft.

  • Review Article2024-06-30

    우리나라 항공정비사 자격제도 및 훈련 국제화를 위한 연구

    Abstract : The aircraft maintenance personnel qualification systems and trainings in Korea are constantly striving to meet the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). However, Korean aircraft maintenance licenses are not recognized in most foreign countries. The reason for this is that the educational standards of the Korean maintenance training curriculum do not meet international standards such as those set by ICAO. Therefore, this study aims to examine the changing trend of The Korean aircraft maintenance qualification system and the current status of maintenance training through the study of international literature on ICAO, European Aviation Safety Agency, Federal Aviation Administration and previous studies in Korea. It will diagnose the problems and provide some suggestions on how to secure the international status of The Korean aircraft maintenance qualification system and the current status of maintenance training, and provide practical suggestions for fostering the aircraft maintenance technician.

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Aims & Scope

본 학술지의 명칭은 한국항공우주의학회지(The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine; KJAsEM)이다. 본 학술지는 항공우주의학협회 및 산하학회인 한국항공우주의학회, 한국항공우주인적요인학회, 한국항공간호학회의 공식 학술잡지이다. 전문가 심사를 거치는 전문학술지로 연 4회(3월 말, 6월 말, 9월 말 및 12월 말) 발행한다.

  • 항공우주의학 - 기초분야

  • 항공우주의학 - 임상분야

  • 항공인적요인

  • 항공간호

Journal Info

The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
June 2024
Vol.34 No.2

pISSN 1738-2548
eISSN 2713-9972

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Most Articles

KORENG
  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Original Article2023-06-30

    비행훈련 시 학생조종사 인적요인 영향에 대하여

    Abstract : Purpose: Most aviation accidents are caused by human factors, and in recent years in Korea, human factors have been identified as the cause of 70% of aviation accidents. Human factors that influence pilots in the aviation field are closely linked to judgment ability and are crucial factors directly impacting flight proficiency. Methods: To explore the human factors that may affect student pilots during flight training, a survey was conducted among flight instructors holding pilot certificates. Results: The results aim not only to identify the human factors that can influence flight performance during training but also to establish a direction for safety by addressing the human factors related to student pilots, with the goal of maintaining safety. Conclusion: Understanding the human factors that affect student pilots, who will be responsible for transporting hundreds of passengers in the future, is essential for cultivating safety knowledge and risk management skills, making it a highly important matter for accident prevention.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Editorial2023-03-31

    편집자 주: 33권 1호

    Abstract : In Vol. 33, No. 1, our readers will find a diverse and engaging selection of content, featuring two insightful review articles and three original research articles that cover a broad range of interesting topics. While we are proud of the variety and depth offered in this issue, we also recognize the need for more submissions to continue providing our readers with high-quality, thought-provoking articles. We encourage researchers and professionals in various fields to contribute to our publication, helping us maintain and expand the rich array of subjects and perspectives we strive to showcase.

  • Review Article2022-12-31

    우주환경과 우주의학

    Abstract : The space environment is a harsh space for humans who have evolved for a long time by adapting to the earth environment. The cosmic conditions that humans experience in outer space including the moon and Mars, such as altered gravity, exposure to cosmic radiation, changes in atmospheric pressure, and lunar dust, not only make the human body uncomfortable but also threaten survival. Space medicine is one of a field of environmental medicine that aims to clarify the physiology and response of body to these harmful space conditions. The primary purpose of space medicine is to protect the health and life of astronauts, and to support mission performance to succeed in space exploration. In addition, it contributes to mankind by utilizing and industrializing the knowledge and technology acquired in the process of developing knowledge about medical countermeasures, basic life support in the space.

  • Review Article2023-03-31

    The Improvement of Pilot Fatigue Management

    Abstract : The fatigue of pilots is the most threatening factor in aviation safety internationally, requiring continuous management. In order to prevent aircraft accidents that may occur due to fatigue, this paper analyzes fatigue-related accident cases and previous research and suggests ways to improve the fatigue management of pilots. Problems in major fatigue accidents were active communication failure, lack of leadership of the captain, inadequate contingency management, lack of workload management, and the most important factors in accidents were inadequate decision making of continuing an approach without going around. It is necessary to proactively improve and establish go-around culture in the organization and manage human factors with training and procedures of Threat and Error Management and Crew Resource Management. In order to fundamentally prevent accidents related to fatigue fundamentally, it is necessary to establish Fatigue Risk Management and Safety Management System, and identify the actual threats and errors in the cockpit of the aircraft.

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KORENG
  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2023-09-30

    SHELL 모델에 근거한 의료사고 인적요인 분석의 탐색적 연구

    Abstract : The SHELL (Software, Hardware, Environment, Liveware) model is one of the models for determining the cause of aviation accidents. The human factors of medical accidents are analyzed through the SHELL model. This study is a case study that analyzed a total of three cases, including two medical accident court precedents and one large fire at a medical institution. In the human factor analysis of cases 1 and 2, the main factors were that liveware (human) violated the duty of care and did not follow the guidelines of the institution. The large fire incident in the hospital in Case 3 was caused by a lack of awareness of the safety of managers, the installation of illegal facilities and environments, lack of medical staff’s response and training, and the condition of patients who were mostly elderly. The liveware at the center of the SHELL model is the most important human factor, and the environment, facilities, and equipment surrounding liveware must be supplemented to prevent future medical accidents.

  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Review Article2023-06-30

    한국공군의 예측적 안전관리를 위한 FOQA 시스템 고찰 연구

    Abstract : In 1962, British Airways implemented Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) for the first time in order to reduce the rate of increase in aviation accidents, which could increase due to the expansion of the aviation industry and the increase in traffic. After that, in 1995, it was developed for the purpose of collecting/analyzing flight data on technical defects and dangerous situations that occur in actual flights through voluntary participation programs by U.S. airlines. In the private sector, it has been regulated and operated in most countries since early 2000 according to the recommendations of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and Federal Aviation Administration. In addition, civil airlines are required to conduct FOQA as part of Safety Management System in accordance with ICAO ANNEX-6. The U.S. Air Force benchmarks the FOQA safety program in the civilian sector and applies it under the name of Military FOQA. Therefore, in the Republic of Korea Air Force, there is a need to ensure flight safety in an objective and scientific way by deriving event parameters for the introduction of the flight data analysis system in order to perform predictive safety management in accordance with the trend of the times.

  • Review Article2023-06-30

    포스트 코로나 대비 항공종사자 건강증진 방안: 싱잉볼 명상을 중심으로

    Abstract : COVID-19 has severely impacted the aviation industry, with air travel declining sharply and airlines cutting capacity as a result. Additionally, many countries have closed their borders to block spread of the virus. Air traffic controllers and pilots have also experienced negative effects, in that the experience required to maintain proficiency has decreased over the past three years. This has resulted in financial problems for airlines and air traffic control facilities, leading to increased job uncertainty and a manpower imbalance. As air traffic volumes begin to increase again, air traffic controllers and pilots responsible for passenger safety may experience extreme stress and anxiety in new situations. To address this problem, healthcare methods are needed to help aviation professionals to overcome stress and reduce anxiety. Meditation can stabilize the autonomic nervous system, promote relaxation and comfort in the mind and body, and could aid in smooth metabolism by suppressing the sympathetic nerves that cause our bodies to feel tension and activating the parasympathetic nerves. However, achieving the benefits of meditation can require time and effort, and general meditation can be challenging for individuals experiencing physical pain. Therefore, singing bowl meditation is recommended, as it can easily induce a meditative state. The sounds produced by Tibetan singing bowls can promote meditation by tuning the alpha waves, theta waves, and gamma waves of electoencephalography. Singing bowl meditation is a beneficial method for individuals with limited time or physical disabilities due to work schedules, such as air traffic controllers and pilots, to easily access meditation.

  • Original Article2022-08-31

    국내 항공 신체검진 시 시행하는 검사실 검사 현황 조사

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

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