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KORENG
  • 종설2010-08-01

    Veterinary Medicine for Aerospace Medicine

    Won-Chang Lee
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2010; 20(1): 1-6

    Abstract : 1858년 비교의학(Comparative Medicine)자 Rudolp Virchow는 동물과 사람을 대상으로 하는 의학은 그 응용 은 다를 지라도 - 의학적 기반은 구분되지 않고, 구분 되어서도 안 된다고 하였다. 현대 수의학(獸醫學)의 발전은 애완동물이나 가축의 질병을 다루는 범위 이외에 인수공통전염병, 생태학, 역학, 식품위생 및 안정성, 환경위생학 그리고 기초의학을 중심으로 하는 생의학(Biomedicine)과 항공우주의학(航空宇宙醫學) 및 군진의학(軍陳醫學) 분야에 이르기까지 관련되어 있음은 주지의 사실이다. 특히 20세기에 들어와서 항공우주의학의 기간이 되는 생 체기초실험의 인간을 대신하는 실험동물연구의 상당부분을 성공적으로 이끌어 온 것은 수의학의 업적이라고 하겠다. 미국의 경우 NASA에는 항공우주의학분야에 수의학 담당관이 있고, 일부 연구관 중에서는 우주비행사로 활약 하거나 우주선내에서의 동물실험 연구원으로 활약하는 수의학자들이 있다는 사실은 별로 알려져 있지 않아, 항공우주의학분야와 관련된 수의학분야를 소개하고자 한다.

  • 종설2016-08-31

    일본항공우주의학센터 및 항공신체검사체계

    Ilse Sung, M.D., Young Hyo Kim, M.D., Hyun Ji Kim, M.D., Kyu-Sung Kim, M.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2016; 26(2): 46-49

    Abstract : There have been many advances in Japan aviation medicine, starting with establishment of the Civil Aeronautics Act in 1952 until now. The aviation medical examination system has been periodically revised and in recent years, the age limit has been extended. As the emerging concerns about aviation safety after an aircraft accident, the Japanese aeromedical research center has been developed in earnest. This article reviews the overall situation of Japanese aviation medicine and presents the direction of Korean aviation medicine to go forth through this. There have been many advances in Japan aviation medicine, starting with establishment of the Civil Aeronautics Act in 1952 until now. The aviation medical examination system has been periodically revised and in recent years, the age limit has been extended. As the emerging concerns about aviation safety after an aircraft accident, the Japanese aeromedical research center has been developed in earnest. This article reviews the overall situation of Japanese aviation medicine and presents the direction of Korean aviation medicine to go forth through this.

  • 종설2016-12-31

    미세중력이 면역계에 미치는 영향: Year-in-Review

    Tae Young Jang, M.D., Ph.D., Kyu-Sung Kim, M.D., Ph.D., Young Hyo Kim, M.D., Ph.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2016; 26(3): 71-74

    Abstract : Microgravity could exert significant health effect for astronauts, by weakening his or her immune function. Opportunistic infection by viruses, bacteria or fungi and their resistance to antibiotics or other treatment could cause significant health problem to astronauts. Therefore, it is essential that we perform research about change of immune function in microgravity condition. However, performing biological research under microgravity condition is extremely difficult on Earth. Therefore, several researchers have developed machinery and methods such as bioreactors (for cell culture study) and anti-orthostatic hindlimb unloading model (for rodents). In this review, we evaluated the usefulness of these models for simulated microgravity research. We also aimed to review recent literatures, which studied the immunological effects of long-term simulated microgravity.

  • Editorial2020-04-30

    편집자 주 - 30권 1호

    Young Hyo Kim , M.D., Ph.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2020; 30(1): 1-2 https://doi.org/10.46246/KJAsEM.30.1.1

    Abstract : In commemoration of Vol. 30, Issue 1, our journal prepares four review articles and two original papers. The first review article provides guidelines for medical treatment for emergencies in an aircraft furing flight. This guideline addresses the resources and medical equipment available to physicians on board, common medical conditions, how to deal with them, including legal issues. The second review article covers historically meaningful animals that have contributed to aerospace research and the role of a veterinarian. The third one describes cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and vestibular physiological effects of microgravity on the human body. As we are about to enter an aging society, the fourth review article introduces guidelines for safe overseas travel for senior passengers. The role of the aviation medical examiner is to maintain aircrew's health and to help them work long and healthy. In this regard, Choi et al. analyzed the physical examination data and sick leave data of an airline. Han et al. investigated the aerospace medical examination data of the Republic of Korea and suggested a solution to some common health problems of the crew.

  • Review Article2020-04-30

    한국형 기내 의학적 상황 대처 방안 안내서

    Jungeon Kim , M.D., Nah-Lee Park , M.D., Jung Ha Kim , M.S., Young Hwan Kwon , M.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2020; 30(1): 3-17 https://doi.org/10.46246/KJAsEM.30.1.3

    Abstract : "The cabin environment has many physiological effects on commercial aircraft passengers and medical providers, and environmental stress factors exist. Therefore, it is important for medical providers to understand the effects of aviation physiology and cabin environment on the human body. It should also be remembered that these physiological changes and environmental stress factors can affect passengers as well as flight crew and also medical equipment. Providing medical assistance during a flight offers a number of unique challenges including lower cabin pressure, tight quarters, crowded conditions, and loud background noise. The purpose of this Korean guideline is to offer an overview on various in-flight emergencies that could be anticipated and to outline treatment priorities."

  • Review Article2020-04-30

    Review of the History of Animals that Helped Human Life and Safety for Aerospace Medical Research and Space Exploration

    Won-Chang Lee , DVM, MPH, Ph.D., Kyu-Sung Kim , M.D., Ph.D., Young Hwan Kwon , M.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2020; 30(1): 18-24 https://doi.org/10.46246/KJAsEM.30.1.18

    Abstract : In 2019, the Aerospace Medical Association of Korea celebrated its 30th anniversary. On the other side of the world, it was also the 62nd anniversary of Russian launch Sputnik 1 of the world’s first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957. In additionally, the world, especially the United States was shocked, when on November 3, 1957, Sputnik 2 blasted into Earth orbit with a dog named “Laika”; it was the role of veterinarian’s activities for aerospace medical research and exploration. Veterinarians (Vets) are responsible for the health of all the animals for aerospace medicine whether on the ground or in space. Vets can enhance animal and public health and this knowledge of Vets and astronauts can extend their mission durations, go to nearby Earth Asteroids, Mars and other heavenly bodies to study their living and non-living characteristics. This review article is the brief history of the original growth of the veterinarian’s activities for the aerospace medical research, in order to stimulate future strategies for improvements in the space life sciences and exploration.

  • Review Article2020-04-30

    Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology

    Nguyen Nguyen , M.D., Gyutae Kim , Ph.D., Kyu-Sung Kim , M.D., Ph.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2020; 30(1): 25-29 https://doi.org/10.46246/KJAsEM.30.1.25

    Abstract : Space exploration is one of the dreams of humankind. However, the intriguing environment was a challenge for the human body, where we must counter with many extreme conditions such as thermal support, radiation, microgravity. Life, as well as the human body, developed and evolved in the continuous presence of gravity, especially when living creatures transfer from the ocean to the land. Once this gravitational force doesn't impact on the body, the drastic changes occur. Some of these changes were observed immediately, while others progress only slowly. Since the first orbital flight was performed, several hazards for the organs of the human body were identified [1]. These changes in human physiology can reverse when astronauts return to Earth. This article will review the published findings of the effects of microgravity exposure on the human body.

  • Original Article2020-08-31

    최근 5년간 국적항공사 조종사의 항공신체검사 부적합 판정결과

    Young Hwan Kwon , M.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2020; 30(2): 70-74 https://doi.org/10.46246/KJAsEM.30.2.70

    Abstract : This study aimed to quantify the causes of Korean airline pilots' medical disqualification during 2015~2019. The airline pilot disqualification data is important for grasping what health problems are common to pilots and establishing preventive health care programs. We were able to obtain data from official sources at the Korean Civil Aviation Authority during 2015~2019. The total number of pilots was 29,095, and the number of disqualified professional pilots in Korea was 36. Looking at airline pilots' status by age group, the 40s were the highest with 38%. However, the disqualification rate per 1,000 pilots was the highest in the 60s, at 4.6. When the different diagnostic categories classified the disqualification results, cardiovascular disease was the highest with 12 cases (33.3%), followed by eye disease, malignancy, neurology, psychiatry, otorhinolaryngology, and respiratory disease. The total number of pilots during 2015~2019 was 29,095, and the overall disqualification rate of 1.6/1,000 pilots.

  • Review Article2021-04-30

    항공우주의학회지 창간 30주년을 맞아: 학회지의 역사, 발전, 그리고 비전

    Young Hyo Kim , M.D., Ph.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2021; 31(1): 4-8 https://doi.org/10.46246/KJAsEM.210007

    Abstract : The year 2021 is a significant year in which the Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine (KJAsEM) celebrates its 30th anniversary. Therefore, in this review, we look back on the history and development of KJAsEM and suggest the direction we should go forward. In particular, the recent development of KJAsEM was described in more detail, such as opening the KJAsEM journal homepage, an online submission system, and adopting an open access policy.

  • Editorial2021-08-31

    편집자 주: 31권 2호

    Young Hyo Kim , M.D., Ph.D.
    Korean J Aerosp Environ Med 2021; 31(2): 31-32 https://doi.org/10.46246/KJAsEM.210015

    Abstract : In Vol. 31, No. 2, our journal prepared a review article, two original papers, and three case reports. First, autonomous systems are increasingly being introduced in aircraft systems. Therefore, it is crucial that flight crews are trained to adapt and handle these autonomous systems better. Consequently, we discussed crew resource management for handling autonomous systems. The fatigue of aviation workers is one of the biggest threats to aviation safety. Therefore, we analyzed the degree of fatigue in commercial aircraft pilots and evaluated the relationship between fatigue and their workload and the effect of fatigue on sleep. Since obesity has a significant impact on the health of aviation workers, we also comparatively analyzed the prevalence of obesity in Korea and Japan based on the data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We defined cases that are difficult for aviation medical examiners to evaluate. This issue included cases of peripheral dizziness and tinnitus, cases of atopic dermatitis treated with biological agents, and cases of malignant tumors.

Journal Info

The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
March 2024
Vol.34 No.1

pISSN 1738-2548
eISSN 2713-9972

Archives

Editorial Office

Most Articles

KORENG
  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : Purpose: Hepatitis E outbreaks are a serious public health concern in the world. The pilots or air traffic controllers can be incapacitated by severe hepatitis symptoms. If the symptoms of acute hepatitis do not improve, it is not suitable for aviation duties. In this study, we compare of incidence status of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections, and epidemic aspects between South Korea (from here on, ‘Korea’) and Japan. Methods: The raw data on confirmed of HEV infection cases were obtained from the National Notified Disease Surveillance System of Korea Diseases Control and Prevention Agency, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea, and the National Epidemiological surveillance of Infectious Diseases surveillance system, administered by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan. Statistically significant differences between the epidemiological aspects and risk factors were determined using the Pearson’s chi-squared test or paired t-test. All data analyses were performed in Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Results: There were 191 cases of HEV infected cases with a prevalence rate (PR) of 0.37 per 100,000 populations of Korea in 2020. During the same year in Japan, there were 454 cases with a PR of 0.36. When compared, there is statistically none significantly differences. Moreover, both PR per 100,000 populations of HEV infections in habitat of two countries were compared, in the provinces (0.39) of Korea were much higher than that in capital city of Seoul (0.27; P

  • Review Article2022-04-30

    항공 피로위험관리를 위한 생체수리적 모델 접근 방안

    Abstract : In the aviation sector, it is recommended to adopt an aviation safety management system (SMS) from international organizations (International Civil Aviation Organization, Federal Aviation Administration, etc.) and to apply a related system in each organization. Among them, fatigue management recommends fatigue risk management system (FRMS) operating as part of SMS proactive risk management. Advanced aviation organizations are developing and applying various related risk assessment techniques that consider characteristics in order to apply scientific and systematic FRMS. Among which the biomathematical fatigue model (BFM) are representative. The Bio-mathematical Model is designed to represent the level by converting it into a simple numerical score, taking into account various related factors for the measurement object. The BFM is tool to predict the level of fatigue of the crew based on scientific understanding of the factors that contribute to fatigue. The Biomathematical Model is used as a scientific approach that promotes the transition to a performance-based safety management. In this study, the recent trends and implications for the BFM developed and applied in the aviation field are to be reviewed. First, FRMS was considered within the SMS framework, then the characteristics and application methods of the BFM were examined, and finally, the direction of the development of the BFM was suggested.

  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    최근 6년간 일개 병원의 외국인 환자 현황과 코로나19의 영향

    Abstract : Purpose: As it becomes difficult to move between countries due to the spread of COVID-19, it can be expected that the number of foreign patients entering Korea for treatment will decrease significantly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of hospitalization of foreign patients over the past 6 years and the impact of COVID-19. Methods: The sex, age, nationality, and histories of foreign patients who visited the International Medical Center from 2016 to 2021 were collected. A total of 25,569 subjects were analyzed. Results: For six years from 2016 to 2021, the number of foreign patients increased steadily before COVID-19 but decreased significantly after COVID-19. Overall, it was analyzed that the average annual growth rate of foreign patients from 2016 to 2019 was about 6%. However, due to the impact of COVID-19, the number of patients in 2020 decreased by about 57% compared to the previous year and by about 1% in 2021 compared to the previous year. Conclusion: It is believed that the decrease in foreign patients in a situation such as Corona 19 is due not only to the risk of infection, but also to the difficulty of moving between countries. In other words, it can be said that the driving force for the movement due to the medical skill gap still exists. Therefore, if this situation improves, it is judged that the phenomenon of moving abroad in search of medical care is inevitable.

  • Editorial2022-04-30

    편집자 주: 32권 1호

    Abstract : In Vol. 32, No. 1, our journal prepared 1 review article, 4 original articles, and 2 case reports. First, the Biomathematical Models for Aviation Fatigue Risk Management were introduced. Among the four original articles, it is possible to get insights into the management of cancer diseases in aviation workers, and it is expected to solve various problems in aerospace medicine through a research case using machine learning techniques. A similar trend was observed in the medical tourism along with the decrease of the aviation industry due to COVID-19. Hepatitis E infection can be occurred in both the public and aviation workers, and the management system was established in 2020 as a second-grade legal infectious disease in Korea. In two case reports, we introduced a case of the Phakic intraocular lenses insertion and a case of the acute myocardial infarction and pericardial effusion.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

Most Articles
KORENG
  • Review Article2020-04-30

    한국형 기내 의학적 상황 대처 방안 안내서

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2020-04-30

    Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2020-04-30

    항공종사자 건강증진활동계획에 반영되어야 할 근거자료: 3년간의 항공신체검사 결과 분석

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2020-08-31

    최근 5년간 국적항공사 조종사의 항공신체검사 부적합 판정결과

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2021-04-30

    항공종사자와 코로나바이러스감염증-19 백신 예방 접종

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2020-08-31

    피로위험관리를 위한 조종사 피로측정방법 고찰

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

Most Articles
KORENG
  • Review Article2022-04-30

    항공 피로위험관리를 위한 생체수리적 모델 접근 방안

    Abstract : In the aviation sector, it is recommended to adopt an aviation safety management system (SMS) from international organizations (International Civil Aviation Organization, Federal Aviation Administration, etc.) and to apply a related system in each organization. Among them, fatigue management recommends fatigue risk management system (FRMS) operating as part of SMS proactive risk management. Advanced aviation organizations are developing and applying various related risk assessment techniques that consider characteristics in order to apply scientific and systematic FRMS. Among which the biomathematical fatigue model (BFM) are representative. The Bio-mathematical Model is designed to represent the level by converting it into a simple numerical score, taking into account various related factors for the measurement object. The BFM is tool to predict the level of fatigue of the crew based on scientific understanding of the factors that contribute to fatigue. The Biomathematical Model is used as a scientific approach that promotes the transition to a performance-based safety management. In this study, the recent trends and implications for the BFM developed and applied in the aviation field are to be reviewed. First, FRMS was considered within the SMS framework, then the characteristics and application methods of the BFM were examined, and finally, the direction of the development of the BFM was suggested.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    머신러닝 알고리즘을 이용한 A형 간염 항체 여부 판별의 정확도

    Abstract : Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a model for predicting the positivity of hepatitis A antibody based on nationwide health information using a machine learning technique. Methods: We used a data set that included the records of 4,626 samples. the data was randomly divided into a training set 80% (3,701) and validation set 20% (925). Customized sequential convolutional neural network (CNN) model was used to predict the positivity of hepatitis A antibody. The loss and accuracy of this model was calculated. Results: This model has 12-input and 2-concatenate and 3-dense layers. The total parameters of this model were 1,779. The accuracy quickly reached to over 85% validation accuracy in 50 epochs. The train loss, train accuracy, validation loss and validation accuracy of this model were 25.4%, 89.5%, 29.0%, and 87.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The model derived from the sequential CNN model exhibited a high level of accuracy. This model is a useful tool for predicting the positivity of hepatitis A antibody.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : Purpose: Hepatitis E outbreaks are a serious public health concern in the world. The pilots or air traffic controllers can be incapacitated by severe hepatitis symptoms. If the symptoms of acute hepatitis do not improve, it is not suitable for aviation duties. In this study, we compare of incidence status of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections, and epidemic aspects between South Korea (from here on, ‘Korea’) and Japan. Methods: The raw data on confirmed of HEV infection cases were obtained from the National Notified Disease Surveillance System of Korea Diseases Control and Prevention Agency, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea, and the National Epidemiological surveillance of Infectious Diseases surveillance system, administered by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan. Statistically significant differences between the epidemiological aspects and risk factors were determined using the Pearson’s chi-squared test or paired t-test. All data analyses were performed in Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Results: There were 191 cases of HEV infected cases with a prevalence rate (PR) of 0.37 per 100,000 populations of Korea in 2020. During the same year in Japan, there were 454 cases with a PR of 0.36. When compared, there is statistically none significantly differences. Moreover, both PR per 100,000 populations of HEV infections in habitat of two countries were compared, in the provinces (0.39) of Korea were much higher than that in capital city of Seoul (0.27; P

  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    최근 6년간 일개 병원의 외국인 환자 현황과 코로나19의 영향

    Abstract : Purpose: As it becomes difficult to move between countries due to the spread of COVID-19, it can be expected that the number of foreign patients entering Korea for treatment will decrease significantly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of hospitalization of foreign patients over the past 6 years and the impact of COVID-19. Methods: The sex, age, nationality, and histories of foreign patients who visited the International Medical Center from 2016 to 2021 were collected. A total of 25,569 subjects were analyzed. Results: For six years from 2016 to 2021, the number of foreign patients increased steadily before COVID-19 but decreased significantly after COVID-19. Overall, it was analyzed that the average annual growth rate of foreign patients from 2016 to 2019 was about 6%. However, due to the impact of COVID-19, the number of patients in 2020 decreased by about 57% compared to the previous year and by about 1% in 2021 compared to the previous year. Conclusion: It is believed that the decrease in foreign patients in a situation such as Corona 19 is due not only to the risk of infection, but also to the difficulty of moving between countries. In other words, it can be said that the driving force for the movement due to the medical skill gap still exists. Therefore, if this situation improves, it is judged that the phenomenon of moving abroad in search of medical care is inevitable.

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