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Journal Info

The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
March 2024
Vol.34 No.1

pISSN 1738-2548
eISSN 2713-9972

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Editorial Office

Most Articles

KORENG
  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : Purpose: Hepatitis E outbreaks are a serious public health concern in the world. The pilots or air traffic controllers can be incapacitated by severe hepatitis symptoms. If the symptoms of acute hepatitis do not improve, it is not suitable for aviation duties. In this study, we compare of incidence status of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections, and epidemic aspects between South Korea (from here on, ‘Korea’) and Japan. Methods: The raw data on confirmed of HEV infection cases were obtained from the National Notified Disease Surveillance System of Korea Diseases Control and Prevention Agency, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea, and the National Epidemiological surveillance of Infectious Diseases surveillance system, administered by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan. Statistically significant differences between the epidemiological aspects and risk factors were determined using the Pearson’s chi-squared test or paired t-test. All data analyses were performed in Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Results: There were 191 cases of HEV infected cases with a prevalence rate (PR) of 0.37 per 100,000 populations of Korea in 2020. During the same year in Japan, there were 454 cases with a PR of 0.36. When compared, there is statistically none significantly differences. Moreover, both PR per 100,000 populations of HEV infections in habitat of two countries were compared, in the provinces (0.39) of Korea were much higher than that in capital city of Seoul (0.27; P

  • Review Article2022-04-30

    항공 피로위험관리를 위한 생체수리적 모델 접근 방안

    Abstract : In the aviation sector, it is recommended to adopt an aviation safety management system (SMS) from international organizations (International Civil Aviation Organization, Federal Aviation Administration, etc.) and to apply a related system in each organization. Among them, fatigue management recommends fatigue risk management system (FRMS) operating as part of SMS proactive risk management. Advanced aviation organizations are developing and applying various related risk assessment techniques that consider characteristics in order to apply scientific and systematic FRMS. Among which the biomathematical fatigue model (BFM) are representative. The Bio-mathematical Model is designed to represent the level by converting it into a simple numerical score, taking into account various related factors for the measurement object. The BFM is tool to predict the level of fatigue of the crew based on scientific understanding of the factors that contribute to fatigue. The Biomathematical Model is used as a scientific approach that promotes the transition to a performance-based safety management. In this study, the recent trends and implications for the BFM developed and applied in the aviation field are to be reviewed. First, FRMS was considered within the SMS framework, then the characteristics and application methods of the BFM were examined, and finally, the direction of the development of the BFM was suggested.

  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    최근 6년간 일개 병원의 외국인 환자 현황과 코로나19의 영향

    Abstract : Purpose: As it becomes difficult to move between countries due to the spread of COVID-19, it can be expected that the number of foreign patients entering Korea for treatment will decrease significantly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of hospitalization of foreign patients over the past 6 years and the impact of COVID-19. Methods: The sex, age, nationality, and histories of foreign patients who visited the International Medical Center from 2016 to 2021 were collected. A total of 25,569 subjects were analyzed. Results: For six years from 2016 to 2021, the number of foreign patients increased steadily before COVID-19 but decreased significantly after COVID-19. Overall, it was analyzed that the average annual growth rate of foreign patients from 2016 to 2019 was about 6%. However, due to the impact of COVID-19, the number of patients in 2020 decreased by about 57% compared to the previous year and by about 1% in 2021 compared to the previous year. Conclusion: It is believed that the decrease in foreign patients in a situation such as Corona 19 is due not only to the risk of infection, but also to the difficulty of moving between countries. In other words, it can be said that the driving force for the movement due to the medical skill gap still exists. Therefore, if this situation improves, it is judged that the phenomenon of moving abroad in search of medical care is inevitable.

  • Editorial2022-04-30

    편집자 주: 32권 1호

    Abstract : In Vol. 32, No. 1, our journal prepared 1 review article, 4 original articles, and 2 case reports. First, the Biomathematical Models for Aviation Fatigue Risk Management were introduced. Among the four original articles, it is possible to get insights into the management of cancer diseases in aviation workers, and it is expected to solve various problems in aerospace medicine through a research case using machine learning techniques. A similar trend was observed in the medical tourism along with the decrease of the aviation industry due to COVID-19. Hepatitis E infection can be occurred in both the public and aviation workers, and the management system was established in 2020 as a second-grade legal infectious disease in Korea. In two case reports, we introduced a case of the Phakic intraocular lenses insertion and a case of the acute myocardial infarction and pericardial effusion.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

Most Articles
KORENG
  • Review Article2020-04-30

    한국형 기내 의학적 상황 대처 방안 안내서

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2020-04-30

    Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2020-04-30

    항공종사자 건강증진활동계획에 반영되어야 할 근거자료: 3년간의 항공신체검사 결과 분석

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2020-08-31

    최근 5년간 국적항공사 조종사의 항공신체검사 부적합 판정결과

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2021-04-30

    항공종사자와 코로나바이러스감염증-19 백신 예방 접종

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2020-08-31

    피로위험관리를 위한 조종사 피로측정방법 고찰

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

Most Articles
KORENG
  • Review Article2022-04-30

    항공 피로위험관리를 위한 생체수리적 모델 접근 방안

    Abstract : In the aviation sector, it is recommended to adopt an aviation safety management system (SMS) from international organizations (International Civil Aviation Organization, Federal Aviation Administration, etc.) and to apply a related system in each organization. Among them, fatigue management recommends fatigue risk management system (FRMS) operating as part of SMS proactive risk management. Advanced aviation organizations are developing and applying various related risk assessment techniques that consider characteristics in order to apply scientific and systematic FRMS. Among which the biomathematical fatigue model (BFM) are representative. The Bio-mathematical Model is designed to represent the level by converting it into a simple numerical score, taking into account various related factors for the measurement object. The BFM is tool to predict the level of fatigue of the crew based on scientific understanding of the factors that contribute to fatigue. The Biomathematical Model is used as a scientific approach that promotes the transition to a performance-based safety management. In this study, the recent trends and implications for the BFM developed and applied in the aviation field are to be reviewed. First, FRMS was considered within the SMS framework, then the characteristics and application methods of the BFM were examined, and finally, the direction of the development of the BFM was suggested.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    머신러닝 알고리즘을 이용한 A형 간염 항체 여부 판별의 정확도

    Abstract : Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a model for predicting the positivity of hepatitis A antibody based on nationwide health information using a machine learning technique. Methods: We used a data set that included the records of 4,626 samples. the data was randomly divided into a training set 80% (3,701) and validation set 20% (925). Customized sequential convolutional neural network (CNN) model was used to predict the positivity of hepatitis A antibody. The loss and accuracy of this model was calculated. Results: This model has 12-input and 2-concatenate and 3-dense layers. The total parameters of this model were 1,779. The accuracy quickly reached to over 85% validation accuracy in 50 epochs. The train loss, train accuracy, validation loss and validation accuracy of this model were 25.4%, 89.5%, 29.0%, and 87.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The model derived from the sequential CNN model exhibited a high level of accuracy. This model is a useful tool for predicting the positivity of hepatitis A antibody.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : Purpose: Hepatitis E outbreaks are a serious public health concern in the world. The pilots or air traffic controllers can be incapacitated by severe hepatitis symptoms. If the symptoms of acute hepatitis do not improve, it is not suitable for aviation duties. In this study, we compare of incidence status of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections, and epidemic aspects between South Korea (from here on, ‘Korea’) and Japan. Methods: The raw data on confirmed of HEV infection cases were obtained from the National Notified Disease Surveillance System of Korea Diseases Control and Prevention Agency, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea, and the National Epidemiological surveillance of Infectious Diseases surveillance system, administered by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan. Statistically significant differences between the epidemiological aspects and risk factors were determined using the Pearson’s chi-squared test or paired t-test. All data analyses were performed in Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Results: There were 191 cases of HEV infected cases with a prevalence rate (PR) of 0.37 per 100,000 populations of Korea in 2020. During the same year in Japan, there were 454 cases with a PR of 0.36. When compared, there is statistically none significantly differences. Moreover, both PR per 100,000 populations of HEV infections in habitat of two countries were compared, in the provinces (0.39) of Korea were much higher than that in capital city of Seoul (0.27; P

  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    최근 6년간 일개 병원의 외국인 환자 현황과 코로나19의 영향

    Abstract : Purpose: As it becomes difficult to move between countries due to the spread of COVID-19, it can be expected that the number of foreign patients entering Korea for treatment will decrease significantly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of hospitalization of foreign patients over the past 6 years and the impact of COVID-19. Methods: The sex, age, nationality, and histories of foreign patients who visited the International Medical Center from 2016 to 2021 were collected. A total of 25,569 subjects were analyzed. Results: For six years from 2016 to 2021, the number of foreign patients increased steadily before COVID-19 but decreased significantly after COVID-19. Overall, it was analyzed that the average annual growth rate of foreign patients from 2016 to 2019 was about 6%. However, due to the impact of COVID-19, the number of patients in 2020 decreased by about 57% compared to the previous year and by about 1% in 2021 compared to the previous year. Conclusion: It is believed that the decrease in foreign patients in a situation such as Corona 19 is due not only to the risk of infection, but also to the difficulty of moving between countries. In other words, it can be said that the driving force for the movement due to the medical skill gap still exists. Therefore, if this situation improves, it is judged that the phenomenon of moving abroad in search of medical care is inevitable.

Most Articles