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Research Ethics

연구출판윤리 관련 정책은 아래 기술한 내용을 따르며, 기술하지 않은 기타 사항은 Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)의 Guidelines on Good Publication (http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) 또는 대한의학학술지편집인협의회의 Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (2019, https://www.kamje.or.kr/board/view?b_name=bo_publication&bo_id=13&per_page=)를 따른다. 생명윤리와 안전에 관한 사항은 보건복지부 지정 기관생명윤리위원회(http://irb.or.kr/)와 대한기관윤리심의기구협의회(http://kairb.org)의 정책에 따른다.

  • (1) 이해관계
    저자는 제출하는 논문에서 이해관계가 있는 경우에 그 내용을 밝혀야 한다. 이해관계는 저자나 저자의 소속기관, 심사자, 편집인이 재정적이거나 개인적 관계가 있어 원고 작성, 심사와 출판 과정에 영향을 끼치는 경우를 말한다. 저자가 특정 회사와 관련된 기관에 고용되었거나, 자문을 하거나, 자신이나 가족이 회사 주식을 소유하거나, 사례금 또는 여행경비를 지원받는 등 재정적 이해관계로 해당 논문 진실성에 영향을 끼칠 수 있다. 이해관계가 재정적인 것만은 아니고 인간관계, 학문적 경쟁, 지적 열정 등으로 인하여 나타날 수 있다. 이해관계는 늘 있을 수 있으므로 중요한 것은 이를 명확하게 밝히는 데 있다. 이해관계를 밝힌 경우 편집자, 심사자, 독자들은 그 상황을 이해한 후 논문을 심사하거나 읽으면 충분하다.
  • (2) 피험자와 실험동물의 권리
    인간 대상연구는 ‘Helsinki Declaration of 1975’의 Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects (2013년 개정, https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/)에 따라야 하며, 동시에 한국 법률 시행령 대통령령 제24329호인 ‘생명윤리 및 안전에 관한 법률’ (2013년 2월 2일 개정)에 따른다. 환자 이름, 병원 환자등록번호, 생년월일 등 환자 관련 정보를 보호하여야 한다. 동물 연구는 국가나 기관에서 정한 실험동물 관리와 사용 기본지침(Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals)에 따라야 하며 국내에서 이루어진 동물 연구는 농림수산검역검사본부훈령 제72호 ‘동물실험지침’(2012년 11월 20일 개정)에 따라야 한다.
  • (3) 서면동의서와 기관생명윤리위원회 승인
    인간 혹은 동물 대상 연구에서 기관생명윤리위원회(Institutional Review Board) 심의 면제 사유가 아니고 승인이 필요한 경우에는 피험자의 서면동의서와 저자 소속기관 기관생명윤리위원회의 승인을 받아야 하며, 편집인은 저자에게 관련 증빙 서류 제출을 요청할 수 있다.
  • (4) 임상시험연구 등록
    임상시험 연구는 질병관리본부 내 임상연구정보서비스(Clinical Research Information Service, CRiS; http://cris.nih.go.kr)나 세계보 건기구에서 승인한 International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (https://www.who.int/clinical-trials-registry-platform), 미국 국립보건원의 ClinicalTrial.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) 등에 등록하여야 한다.
  • (5) 저자의 조건과 책임
    책임저자는 원고 접수, 전문가 심사, 출판 과정에서 편집위원회와 직접 연락을 취하는 저자이어야 하며, 저자정보 제공, 윤리위원회 승인, 임상실험 등록, 이해관계 명시서 취합 등 편집위원회 요구에 협조하여야 한다. 출판 후에도 논문에 대한 논평에 회신하고, 편집위원회에서 논문에 사용된 데이터나 추가 정보를 요청하면 협조해야 한다. 공저자는 논문의 모든 내용에 공동 책임을 지며, 모든 저자는 다음의 4가지 조건을 충족해야 한다.
    • 1) 연구의 기본 개념 설정과 연구의 설계, 자료의 수집, 분석, 해석에 충분히 기여
    • 2) 논문작성 또는 내용의 주요 부분 변경에 충분히 기여
    • 3) 최종 원고의 승인
    • 4) 논문의 정확성, 진실성을 조사할 때 이에 관련한 질의에 책임짐
    위의 네 가지를 모두 충족하지 못하는 경우 감사글(Acknowledgment)에 기여자(contributor)로 기재할 수 있다. 책임저자가 기여도를 판단하여 공동 제1저자나 공동 책임저자를 인정할 수 있다.
  • (6) 중복출판
    다른 학술지에 투고하여 전문가심사 받는 중이거나 이미 발표한 논문을 우리 학술지에 투고나 게재할 수 없으며, 우리 학술지에 출판한 논문은 편집위원회의 허락 없이 다른 학술지에 투고나 게재할 수 없다. 본 학술지에 실린 그림과 표는 출처를 밝히고 연구나 교육 등 비영리 목적으로 자유롭게 사용 가능하다. 다른 학술지나 단행본 등에 실린 표나 그림을 투고 논문에서 인용할 때 Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License에 따른 open access 자료가 아닐 경우 저자는 저작권자로부터 서면 허락을 받아야 한다.
  • (7) 이차출판
    ICMJE의 Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (http://www.icmje.org/)에서 제안한 조건에 맞으면 이차출판 할 수 있다. 정부기관이나 전문가단체에서 발간한 진료지침은 독자가 다양하고 관심 가진 사람이 많으므로, 여러 편집인이 합의하여 여러 학술지에 실을 수 있다. 다른 국가, 다른 언어, 다른 학술지에서 발행할 때 이차출판 할 수 있다. 우선, 저자는 해당 학술지 편집인이나 발행인에게 사전 허락을 받아야 한다. 그리고 이차출판 투고 원고를 받은 편집인은 원 논문 복사본을 확보하여 하고, 일차출판에 대한 우선권을 주기 위해 보통 1주 이상 출판일 차이를 두지만 해당 편집인이 사전 협의하면 동시에 출판할 수 있다. 또한 이차출판은 독자층이 달라야 하고 축약본만으로도 가능하다. 마지막으로, 원 논문 자료와 해석을 충실히 따라야 하며 투고 원고 첫 페이지에 각주를 통해서 독자, 심사자, 사무국에 현 원고 전체나 일부분이 다른 학술지에 출판되었음을 알려야 한다.
  • (8) 연구출판윤리 위반 처리
    중복출판, 표절, 날조 또는 변조된 데이터, 저자 변경, 이해관계 문제, 연구윤리 문제, 저자의 자료나 아이디어 도용한 심사자 등 연구출판 윤리 위반 사항이 있으면 COPE의 처리절차인 flow chart (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts)를 참조하여 편집위원회에서 해당 사안을 논의하여 조치사항을 결정하고 시행한다.
  • (9) 편집위원회 책임
    편집위원회는 내용 진실성 유지, 상업적 요구 배제, 출판물 수정이나 철회, 표절과 날조 자료 거르기(screening) 등 출판윤리와 진실성을 확립하기 위하여 최선을 다한다. 투고 논문은 Similarity Check로 점검하여, similarity index 값이 높으면 중복출판이나 표절여부를 세세히 살핀다. 편집인은 투고 논문의 게재 여부 결정에 최종 책임을 지고, 이해관계 여부를 살피고, 오류 수정 요청하거나, 심각한 위반이 있으면 철회 권유하며, 심사자 익명을 지키는 등 여러 의무에 만전을 기한다.

Publication Ethics

For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instruction, “Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (http://kamje.or.kr)” or “COPE Core Practices (https://publicationethics.org/core-practices)” can be applied.

  • 1. Authorship
    It is important to understand that authorship credit should be based on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Every author should meet all of these four conditions for every submitted manuscript to ‘The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine (KJAsEM)’.

    After the initial submission of a manuscript, any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or re-arranging the order of authors) must be explained by a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. Copyright assignment must also be completed by every author.

    Correction of authorship: KJAsEM does not correct authorship after publication unless a mistake has been made by the editorial staff. Authorship may be changed before publication but after submission when an authorship correction is requested by all of the authors involved with the manuscript.
  • 2. Originality, plagiarism, and duplicate publication
    Submitted manuscripts must not have been previously published in any context, or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in any other scientific journal without the express written permission of the Editorial Board. This restriction does not apply to abstracts or press reports published in connection with scientific meetings.

    Submitted manuscripts are screened for possible plagiarism or duplicate publication by the use of Similarity Check upon arrival. If plagiarism or duplicate publication related to the papers of this journal is detected, the manuscripts may be rejected, the authors will be announced in the journal, and their institutions will be informed of this situation. There will also be penalties that will be assessed and applied for the authors if this incident occurs.

    A letter of permission is required for any and all material that has been published previously. It is the responsibility of the author to request permission from the publisher for any material that is being reproduced or considered for reproduction by KJAsEM. This requirement applies to text, figures, and tables.
  • 3. Secondary publication
    It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the conditions of secondary publication of the ICMJE Recommendations (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html).
  • 4. Conflict-of-interest statement
    A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author’s institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships that could inappropriately influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript.

    Corresponding author of an article is asked to let the Editor-in-Chief know potential conflict of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of data. Potential conflict of interest is applied even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced in the manuscript. Such conflicts may be financial supports or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems.

    The Editor-in-Chief will decide whether the information of the conflict should be included in the published paper. Before publishing such information, the Editor-in-Chief will consult with the corresponding author. In particular, all sources of funding for a research should be explicitly stated.
  • 5. Statement of human and animal right
    Clinical research should be done in accordance of the “Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects,” outlined in the Helsinki Declaration. Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for use in the publication. Human subjects should not be identifiable, such that the confidentiality of the patient’s names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.
  • 6. Statement of informed consent and Institutional Review Board approval
    Copies of written informed consents should be kept for studies on human subjects. For the clinical studies with human subjects, there should be a certificate, an agreement, or the approval by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the author’s affiliated institution. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve any questions regarding IRB approval and study conduct.
  • 7. Registration of the clinical trial research
    Any research that deals with a clinical trial should be registered with the primary national clinical trial registry site such as the Korea Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), other primary national registry sites accredited by the World Health Organization (https://www.who.int/clinical-trials-registry-platform), or ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/), a service of the United States National Institutes of Health.
  • 8. Process for managing research and publication misconduct
    When the journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, an undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and so on, the resolution process will be completed following the procedures outlined in the flowchart provided by the COPE (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The discussion and decision on the suspected cases will be carried out by the Editorial Board.
  • 9. Process for handling cases requiring corrections, retractions, and editorial expressions of concern
    Cases that require editorial expressions of concern or retraction shall follow the COPE flowcharts (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). If a correction is required, the procedure to provide the correction will follow the ICMJE Recommendation (http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/corrections-and-version-control.html).
  • 10. Editorial responsibilities
    The Editorial Board will continuously work to monitor and safeguard publication ethics: guidelines for retracting articles; maintenance of the integrity of the academic record; preclusion of business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed; and excluding plagiarism and fraudulent data. The editors maintain the following responsibilities: responsibility and authority to reject and accept articles; avoiding any conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject or accept; promoting publication of corrections or retractions when errors are found; and the preservation of the anonymity of reviewers.

Journal Info

The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
March 2024
Vol.34 No.1

pISSN 1738-2548
eISSN 2713-9972

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Editorial Office

Most Articles

KORENG
  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : Purpose: Hepatitis E outbreaks are a serious public health concern in the world. The pilots or air traffic controllers can be incapacitated by severe hepatitis symptoms. If the symptoms of acute hepatitis do not improve, it is not suitable for aviation duties. In this study, we compare of incidence status of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections, and epidemic aspects between South Korea (from here on, ‘Korea’) and Japan. Methods: The raw data on confirmed of HEV infection cases were obtained from the National Notified Disease Surveillance System of Korea Diseases Control and Prevention Agency, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea, and the National Epidemiological surveillance of Infectious Diseases surveillance system, administered by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan. Statistically significant differences between the epidemiological aspects and risk factors were determined using the Pearson’s chi-squared test or paired t-test. All data analyses were performed in Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Results: There were 191 cases of HEV infected cases with a prevalence rate (PR) of 0.37 per 100,000 populations of Korea in 2020. During the same year in Japan, there were 454 cases with a PR of 0.36. When compared, there is statistically none significantly differences. Moreover, both PR per 100,000 populations of HEV infections in habitat of two countries were compared, in the provinces (0.39) of Korea were much higher than that in capital city of Seoul (0.27; P

  • Review Article2022-04-30

    항공 피로위험관리를 위한 생체수리적 모델 접근 방안

    Abstract : In the aviation sector, it is recommended to adopt an aviation safety management system (SMS) from international organizations (International Civil Aviation Organization, Federal Aviation Administration, etc.) and to apply a related system in each organization. Among them, fatigue management recommends fatigue risk management system (FRMS) operating as part of SMS proactive risk management. Advanced aviation organizations are developing and applying various related risk assessment techniques that consider characteristics in order to apply scientific and systematic FRMS. Among which the biomathematical fatigue model (BFM) are representative. The Bio-mathematical Model is designed to represent the level by converting it into a simple numerical score, taking into account various related factors for the measurement object. The BFM is tool to predict the level of fatigue of the crew based on scientific understanding of the factors that contribute to fatigue. The Biomathematical Model is used as a scientific approach that promotes the transition to a performance-based safety management. In this study, the recent trends and implications for the BFM developed and applied in the aviation field are to be reviewed. First, FRMS was considered within the SMS framework, then the characteristics and application methods of the BFM were examined, and finally, the direction of the development of the BFM was suggested.

  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    최근 6년간 일개 병원의 외국인 환자 현황과 코로나19의 영향

    Abstract : Purpose: As it becomes difficult to move between countries due to the spread of COVID-19, it can be expected that the number of foreign patients entering Korea for treatment will decrease significantly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of hospitalization of foreign patients over the past 6 years and the impact of COVID-19. Methods: The sex, age, nationality, and histories of foreign patients who visited the International Medical Center from 2016 to 2021 were collected. A total of 25,569 subjects were analyzed. Results: For six years from 2016 to 2021, the number of foreign patients increased steadily before COVID-19 but decreased significantly after COVID-19. Overall, it was analyzed that the average annual growth rate of foreign patients from 2016 to 2019 was about 6%. However, due to the impact of COVID-19, the number of patients in 2020 decreased by about 57% compared to the previous year and by about 1% in 2021 compared to the previous year. Conclusion: It is believed that the decrease in foreign patients in a situation such as Corona 19 is due not only to the risk of infection, but also to the difficulty of moving between countries. In other words, it can be said that the driving force for the movement due to the medical skill gap still exists. Therefore, if this situation improves, it is judged that the phenomenon of moving abroad in search of medical care is inevitable.

  • Editorial2022-04-30

    편집자 주: 32권 1호

    Abstract : In Vol. 32, No. 1, our journal prepared 1 review article, 4 original articles, and 2 case reports. First, the Biomathematical Models for Aviation Fatigue Risk Management were introduced. Among the four original articles, it is possible to get insights into the management of cancer diseases in aviation workers, and it is expected to solve various problems in aerospace medicine through a research case using machine learning techniques. A similar trend was observed in the medical tourism along with the decrease of the aviation industry due to COVID-19. Hepatitis E infection can be occurred in both the public and aviation workers, and the management system was established in 2020 as a second-grade legal infectious disease in Korea. In two case reports, we introduced a case of the Phakic intraocular lenses insertion and a case of the acute myocardial infarction and pericardial effusion.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

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KORENG
  • Review Article2020-04-30

    한국형 기내 의학적 상황 대처 방안 안내서

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2020-04-30

    Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2020-04-30

    항공종사자 건강증진활동계획에 반영되어야 할 근거자료: 3년간의 항공신체검사 결과 분석

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2020-08-31

    최근 5년간 국적항공사 조종사의 항공신체검사 부적합 판정결과

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2021-04-30

    항공종사자와 코로나바이러스감염증-19 백신 예방 접종

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Review Article2020-08-31

    피로위험관리를 위한 조종사 피로측정방법 고찰

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

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KORENG
  • Review Article2022-04-30

    항공 피로위험관리를 위한 생체수리적 모델 접근 방안

    Abstract : In the aviation sector, it is recommended to adopt an aviation safety management system (SMS) from international organizations (International Civil Aviation Organization, Federal Aviation Administration, etc.) and to apply a related system in each organization. Among them, fatigue management recommends fatigue risk management system (FRMS) operating as part of SMS proactive risk management. Advanced aviation organizations are developing and applying various related risk assessment techniques that consider characteristics in order to apply scientific and systematic FRMS. Among which the biomathematical fatigue model (BFM) are representative. The Bio-mathematical Model is designed to represent the level by converting it into a simple numerical score, taking into account various related factors for the measurement object. The BFM is tool to predict the level of fatigue of the crew based on scientific understanding of the factors that contribute to fatigue. The Biomathematical Model is used as a scientific approach that promotes the transition to a performance-based safety management. In this study, the recent trends and implications for the BFM developed and applied in the aviation field are to be reviewed. First, FRMS was considered within the SMS framework, then the characteristics and application methods of the BFM were examined, and finally, the direction of the development of the BFM was suggested.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    머신러닝 알고리즘을 이용한 A형 간염 항체 여부 판별의 정확도

    Abstract : Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a model for predicting the positivity of hepatitis A antibody based on nationwide health information using a machine learning technique. Methods: We used a data set that included the records of 4,626 samples. the data was randomly divided into a training set 80% (3,701) and validation set 20% (925). Customized sequential convolutional neural network (CNN) model was used to predict the positivity of hepatitis A antibody. The loss and accuracy of this model was calculated. Results: This model has 12-input and 2-concatenate and 3-dense layers. The total parameters of this model were 1,779. The accuracy quickly reached to over 85% validation accuracy in 50 epochs. The train loss, train accuracy, validation loss and validation accuracy of this model were 25.4%, 89.5%, 29.0%, and 87.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The model derived from the sequential CNN model exhibited a high level of accuracy. This model is a useful tool for predicting the positivity of hepatitis A antibody.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : Purpose: Hepatitis E outbreaks are a serious public health concern in the world. The pilots or air traffic controllers can be incapacitated by severe hepatitis symptoms. If the symptoms of acute hepatitis do not improve, it is not suitable for aviation duties. In this study, we compare of incidence status of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections, and epidemic aspects between South Korea (from here on, ‘Korea’) and Japan. Methods: The raw data on confirmed of HEV infection cases were obtained from the National Notified Disease Surveillance System of Korea Diseases Control and Prevention Agency, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Korea, and the National Epidemiological surveillance of Infectious Diseases surveillance system, administered by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan. Statistically significant differences between the epidemiological aspects and risk factors were determined using the Pearson’s chi-squared test or paired t-test. All data analyses were performed in Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA). Results: There were 191 cases of HEV infected cases with a prevalence rate (PR) of 0.37 per 100,000 populations of Korea in 2020. During the same year in Japan, there were 454 cases with a PR of 0.36. When compared, there is statistically none significantly differences. Moreover, both PR per 100,000 populations of HEV infections in habitat of two countries were compared, in the provinces (0.39) of Korea were much higher than that in capital city of Seoul (0.27; P

  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    최근 6년간 일개 병원의 외국인 환자 현황과 코로나19의 영향

    Abstract : Purpose: As it becomes difficult to move between countries due to the spread of COVID-19, it can be expected that the number of foreign patients entering Korea for treatment will decrease significantly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of hospitalization of foreign patients over the past 6 years and the impact of COVID-19. Methods: The sex, age, nationality, and histories of foreign patients who visited the International Medical Center from 2016 to 2021 were collected. A total of 25,569 subjects were analyzed. Results: For six years from 2016 to 2021, the number of foreign patients increased steadily before COVID-19 but decreased significantly after COVID-19. Overall, it was analyzed that the average annual growth rate of foreign patients from 2016 to 2019 was about 6%. However, due to the impact of COVID-19, the number of patients in 2020 decreased by about 57% compared to the previous year and by about 1% in 2021 compared to the previous year. Conclusion: It is believed that the decrease in foreign patients in a situation such as Corona 19 is due not only to the risk of infection, but also to the difficulty of moving between countries. In other words, it can be said that the driving force for the movement due to the medical skill gap still exists. Therefore, if this situation improves, it is judged that the phenomenon of moving abroad in search of medical care is inevitable.

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