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KJASEM The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine

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Open Access

This is an Open Access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Copyright © 2020 by Aerospace Medical Association of Korea, pISSN 1738-2548 eISSN 2713-9972

Journal Info

The Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
March 2024
Vol.34 No.1

pISSN 1738-2548
eISSN 2713-9972

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Most Articles

KORENG
  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2023-06-30

    비행훈련 시 학생조종사 인적요인 영향에 대하여

    Abstract : Purpose: Most aviation accidents are caused by human factors, and in recent years in Korea, human factors have been identified as the cause of 70% of aviation accidents. Human factors that influence pilots in the aviation field are closely linked to judgment ability and are crucial factors directly impacting flight proficiency. Methods: To explore the human factors that may affect student pilots during flight training, a survey was conducted among flight instructors holding pilot certificates. Results: The results aim not only to identify the human factors that can influence flight performance during training but also to establish a direction for safety by addressing the human factors related to student pilots, with the goal of maintaining safety. Conclusion: Understanding the human factors that affect student pilots, who will be responsible for transporting hundreds of passengers in the future, is essential for cultivating safety knowledge and risk management skills, making it a highly important matter for accident prevention.

  • Editorial2023-03-31

    편집자 주: 33권 1호

    Abstract : In Vol. 33, No. 1, our readers will find a diverse and engaging selection of content, featuring two insightful review articles and three original research articles that cover a broad range of interesting topics. While we are proud of the variety and depth offered in this issue, we also recognize the need for more submissions to continue providing our readers with high-quality, thought-provoking articles. We encourage researchers and professionals in various fields to contribute to our publication, helping us maintain and expand the rich array of subjects and perspectives we strive to showcase.

  • Review Article2022-12-31

    우주환경과 우주의학

    Abstract : The space environment is a harsh space for humans who have evolved for a long time by adapting to the earth environment. The cosmic conditions that humans experience in outer space including the moon and Mars, such as altered gravity, exposure to cosmic radiation, changes in atmospheric pressure, and lunar dust, not only make the human body uncomfortable but also threaten survival. Space medicine is one of a field of environmental medicine that aims to clarify the physiology and response of body to these harmful space conditions. The primary purpose of space medicine is to protect the health and life of astronauts, and to support mission performance to succeed in space exploration. In addition, it contributes to mankind by utilizing and industrializing the knowledge and technology acquired in the process of developing knowledge about medical countermeasures, basic life support in the space.

  • Original Article2022-08-31

    국내 항공 신체검진 시 시행하는 검사실 검사 현황 조사

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

Most Articles
KORENG
  • Review Article2020-04-30

    Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

  • Review Article2020-04-30

    한국형 기내 의학적 상황 대처 방안 안내서

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

  • Original Article2020-04-30

    항공종사자 건강증진활동계획에 반영되어야 할 근거자료: 3년간의 항공신체검사 결과 분석

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

  • Review Article2020-08-31

    피로위험관리를 위한 조종사 피로측정방법 고찰

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

  • Original Article2020-08-31

    최근 5년간 국적항공사 조종사의 항공신체검사 부적합 판정결과

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

  • Original Article2022-04-30

    Epidemiological Aspects of Hepatitis E Virus Infections between South Korea and Japan

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

  • Review Article2021-04-30

    항공종사자와 코로나바이러스감염증-19 백신 예방 접종

    Abstract : Purpose: The medical certification for pilots is required by the aviation safety authority based with the aviation safety act. Methods: In this study, medical examination items of the year of 2021 performed during the aviation medical examination in Korea were reviewed by retrospective analysis. Results: Data from a total of 27 hospitals were collected. The number of inspection items ranged from a minimum of 22 items to a maximum of 57 items, showing a difference of more than double. Data from tertiary general hospitals and large airlines showed a tendency to perform more items of test compared to clinic-level institutions. The ratios for each inspection item are as follows: 1) 100% inspection items: urine test, ophthalmic test (except fundus test), fasting blood sugar, general blood test (complete blood count), electrocardiogram, electoencephalography, chest posterior anterior, pure tone audiometry, and total cholesterol; 2) 65%–74% inspection items: triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, and hepatitis B surface antigen; 3) 57% inspection items: hepatitis B surface antibody, human immunodeficiency virus, and venereal disease research laboratory; 4) 50% inspection items: urate and fundus examination. Conclusion: There have been many changes in the medical field over the past 40 years, but in terms of examination items, the aviation physical examination does not reflect the flow of change. Over the past years, the number of pilots has increased significantly, the flight environment has changed, and medical examination methods have been developed and diversified. In accordance with this, it is necessary to change the test items.

Most Articles
KORENG
  • Review Article2022-08-31

    우주에서의 외과수술

    Abstract : For Mars exploration, spaceflight is advancing with the goal of sending manned spacecraft to Mars. Mars is 54.6 million kilometers away when it is closest to Earth. If a surgical emergency occurs during Mars exploration, it could take months or years to transport patients. Research estimates that an average of one surgical emergency will occur every 2.4 years during the Mars expedition for a crew of seven. Considering the astronomical cost of space travel and astronaut training, surgical treatment needs to be considered. There are various problems in performing surgery in space, but typically, physiological changes in the body due to microgravity, difficulty in performing surgery due to an unfamiliar environment, and difficulty in maintaining sterility can be considered. Also, since an experienced surgeon cannot ride on all spaceships, tele-surgery is required. As an alternative to overcome these problems, robot assisted minimal invasive surgery has been proposed. However, it is necessary to solve the signal delay caused by the longer distance. Other alternatives, such as the development of Robot technology, rapid transport due to trauma pod, and performing surgery while notifying the crew medical officer, have been suggested.

  • Original Article2023-03-31

    항공학과 학생들의 MBTI 성격 유형별 조직몰입 및 팀워크 역량 차이분석

    Abstract : Purpose: For students who have already decided on their career path by entering the aviation departments, this study aims to analyze organizational commitment and teamwork relationships using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type as a tool. Methods: In order to investigate the career choices of aviation workers according to MBTI personality types, a survey was conducted targeting enrolled in and graduating from the aviation departments, and organizational commitment and teawork were analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0. Results: Sening, Feeling, and Perceiving were mainly found in students who chose cabin crew as their career, whereas students in department of flight crew and aviation maintenance showed high level in Instuition, Thinkg, and Juding. As a result of the analysis, the MBTI type for each career path of aviation students was mainly ENTP for flight crew students, ESFP for cabin crew students, and INTP for aviation maintenance students. Conclusion: Even if students make their choice based on advice, subjective and objective judgments in choosing a career path, there are cases in which the chosen job does not suit them. Therefore, it is hoped that various indicators such as the MBTI will be used to help studnes choose their career path.

  • Review Article2023-09-30

    SHELL 모델에 근거한 의료사고 인적요인 분석의 탐색적 연구

    Abstract : The SHELL (Software, Hardware, Environment, Liveware) model is one of the models for determining the cause of aviation accidents. The human factors of medical accidents are analyzed through the SHELL model. This study is a case study that analyzed a total of three cases, including two medical accident court precedents and one large fire at a medical institution. In the human factor analysis of cases 1 and 2, the main factors were that liveware (human) violated the duty of care and did not follow the guidelines of the institution. The large fire incident in the hospital in Case 3 was caused by a lack of awareness of the safety of managers, the installation of illegal facilities and environments, lack of medical staff’s response and training, and the condition of patients who were mostly elderly. The liveware at the center of the SHELL model is the most important human factor, and the environment, facilities, and equipment surrounding liveware must be supplemented to prevent future medical accidents.

  • Review Article2022-08-31

    The Enhancing Error Management of Pilot and Line Operation Safety Audit

    Abstract : The human factors become the most important factor in aviation safety. In order to prevent accident, pilots should manage errors in the cockpit. International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) recommends airlines to implement line operation safety audit (LOSA) to identify the management of errors by pilots and understand real errors and the competencies. The LOSA may provide metrics of the prevalence of errors by each types and rate of trapping errors to management enhancing errors. Airlines may understand how crew respond and manage errors. The operator may enhance safety once they identify errors and train crew how they manage to reduce the most mismanagement errors. This study is to provide operators eight recommendations on how to enhance errors and LOSA understanding human errors collected through LOSA and enhancing the implementation of LOSA with guidance according to ICAO and Federal Aviation Administration.

  • Review Article2023-06-30

    한국공군의 예측적 안전관리를 위한 FOQA 시스템 고찰 연구

    Abstract : In 1962, British Airways implemented Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) for the first time in order to reduce the rate of increase in aviation accidents, which could increase due to the expansion of the aviation industry and the increase in traffic. After that, in 1995, it was developed for the purpose of collecting/analyzing flight data on technical defects and dangerous situations that occur in actual flights through voluntary participation programs by U.S. airlines. In the private sector, it has been regulated and operated in most countries since early 2000 according to the recommendations of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and Federal Aviation Administration. In addition, civil airlines are required to conduct FOQA as part of Safety Management System in accordance with ICAO ANNEX-6. The U.S. Air Force benchmarks the FOQA safety program in the civilian sector and applies it under the name of Military FOQA. Therefore, in the Republic of Korea Air Force, there is a need to ensure flight safety in an objective and scientific way by deriving event parameters for the introduction of the flight data analysis system in order to perform predictive safety management in accordance with the trend of the times.

  • Review Article2023-06-30

    포스트 코로나 대비 항공종사자 건강증진 방안: 싱잉볼 명상을 중심으로

    Abstract : COVID-19 has severely impacted the aviation industry, with air travel declining sharply and airlines cutting capacity as a result. Additionally, many countries have closed their borders to block spread of the virus. Air traffic controllers and pilots have also experienced negative effects, in that the experience required to maintain proficiency has decreased over the past three years. This has resulted in financial problems for airlines and air traffic control facilities, leading to increased job uncertainty and a manpower imbalance. As air traffic volumes begin to increase again, air traffic controllers and pilots responsible for passenger safety may experience extreme stress and anxiety in new situations. To address this problem, healthcare methods are needed to help aviation professionals to overcome stress and reduce anxiety. Meditation can stabilize the autonomic nervous system, promote relaxation and comfort in the mind and body, and could aid in smooth metabolism by suppressing the sympathetic nerves that cause our bodies to feel tension and activating the parasympathetic nerves. However, achieving the benefits of meditation can require time and effort, and general meditation can be challenging for individuals experiencing physical pain. Therefore, singing bowl meditation is recommended, as it can easily induce a meditative state. The sounds produced by Tibetan singing bowls can promote meditation by tuning the alpha waves, theta waves, and gamma waves of electoencephalography. Singing bowl meditation is a beneficial method for individuals with limited time or physical disabilities due to work schedules, such as air traffic controllers and pilots, to easily access meditation.

  • Review Article2022-12-31

    코로나바이러스감염증-19 후유증과 항공안전

    Abstract : Since its emergence in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 has spread and had a profound effect on the lives and health of people around the globe. Most people who develop COVID-19 fully recover, but current evidence suggests approximately 10% to 20% of people experience a variety of mid- and long-term effects after they recover from their initial illness. These mid- and long-term effects are collectively known as post covid-19 condition or “long COVID”. Studies have shown that a significant number of patients complain of multiple symptoms over a period of several months or longer. The symptoms of long covid include fatigue or muscle weakness, dyspnea, cognitive impairment, and depression or anxiety. These chronic symptoms can also negatively affect aviation safety. Therefore, this review summarizes studies of the long-term effects of COVID-19, and aeromedical implications of long COVID.

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